View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages, Vol. 3

Henry Hallam View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages, Vol. 3
Henry Hallam
Project Gutenberg
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Reign of Edward I.—Confirmatio Chartarum—Constitution of Parliament—the Prelates—the temporal Peers—Tenure by Barony—its Changes—Difficulty of the Subject—Origin of Representation of the Commons—Knights of Shires—their Existence doubtfully traced through the Reign of Henry III.—Question whether Representation was confined to Tenants in capite discussed—State of English Towns at the Conquest and afterwards—their Progress—Representatives from them summoned to Parliament by Earl of Leicester—Improbability of an earlier Origin—Cases of St. Albans and Barnstaple considered—Parliaments under Edward I.—Separation of Knights and Burgesses from the Peers—Edward II.—Gradual Progress of the Authority of Parliament traced through the reigns of Edward III. and his Successors down to Henry IV.—Privilege of Parliament—the early Instances of it noticed—Nature of Borough Representation—Rights of Election—other Particulars relative to Election—House of Lords—Baronies by Tenure—by Writ—Nature of the latter discussed—Creation of Peers by Act of Parliament and by Patent—Summons of Clergy to Parliament—King's Ordinary Council—its Judicial and other Power—Character of the Plantagenet Government—Prerogative—its Excesses—erroneous Views corrected—Testimony of Sir John Fortescue to the Freedom of the Constitution—Causes of the superior Liberty of England considered—State of Society in England—Want of Police—Villenage—its gradual Extinction—Latter Years of Henry VI.—Regencies—Instances of them enumerated—Pretensions of the House of York, and War of the Roses—Edward IV.—Conclusion. Page 1

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